Basic Concepts of Stepper Motor

Let us take a sneak peek into Stepper motors and learn their basic functioning and certain technical terms, which are generally associated with them. Though this article is meant for everybody, it is primarily meant to educate our young readers and hobbyists alike. So let’s begin:

Basically, we will be talking about the Hybrid Stepper motors, which as the name indicates are a Hybrid of “Permanent Magnet” and “Variable Reluctance” stepper motors. The Permanent magnet stepper motors, also referred to as “Tin-can” motors are low-cost, low-resolution type motors with step angle ranging from 7.5-15 degree.(48-24 steps/revolution) this is easy maths, try it yourself!! PM motors have permanent magnets added to the motor structure. The rotor has no teeth, but is magnetized with alternating north and south poles, and is situated in a straight line to the rotor shaft. These magnetized rotor poles provide and increased magnetic flux density and because of this, the PM motor exhibits a higher torque as compared to a Variable Reluctance type. Continue reading

What is Industrial Automation


Industrial Automation is the use of automation in various industrial applications or processes. This includes manufacturing, quality control or material handling. Large production quantity with consistent quality in a short span of time can be achieved only through automation. Indeed, gone are the days when manual intervention was needed in every activity.
Today, automation has reduced the need of unskilled labor in most of the industrial processes, thus helping the owners to reduce their cost of production.

Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.

The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor, however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department.[1] It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.[2]

Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques.